Cathy Aranda
Cathy Aranda

APSA Citation - Learn How to Cite With Examples

8 min read

Published on: Apr 3, 2024

Last updated on: Apr 8, 2024

APSA Citation

APSA citation is a style of referencing used in political science and related fields. APSA stands for American Political Science Association, which publishes the APSA Style Manual for Political Science. 

This manual provides guidelines for citing sources, formatting papers, and writing clearly and consistently.

In this blog post, we will explain how to cite in APSA citation style, with examples and tips for different types of sources. 

We will also show you how to format your paper, in-text citations, and reference page in APSA. 

By the end of this post, you will be able to cite sources in APSA citation style with confidence and ease.

APSA Paper Formatting

Before we dive into the details of citing sources, let’s first review the general formatting rules for your paper, which include title page and paper settings:

APSA Title Page Formatting

The first step to follow the APSA style is to create a title page, which should include the following information: 

  • Use Times New Roman, 12 pt, and leave one inch on each side of the page.
  • Write your paper title in the middle of the page. It should be about one-third from the top. 
  • Capitalize the first letter of each word cap, but not for words like “the” or “and”. 
  • A few lines below the title, write your name, class information, and date. Each of them should be on a separate line.
  • Do not write anything else on the title page, including the page number or running head.

Here is what a title page should look like:

APSA Style

APSA Page Settings

As the APSA citation style is an extension of the Chicago Style, it will follow the same paper formatting rules which are:

Font: Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman, Arial, or Calibri, in 12-point size.

Margin Spacing: The margin spacing should be 1 inch on all sides.

Line Spacing: Double-space your text, including the title page, abstract, main body, and reference page.

Text Alignment: Align your text to the left and use a ragged right margin.

Formatting In-Text Citation in APSA Style

APSA uses the author-date method of Chicago Style for in-text citations or parenthetical citations. 

Parenthetical citation is when you put the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence or paragraph that contains the citation. 

The format of the parenthetical citation depends on the type of source you are citing, but generally, it includes the following elements:

  • Author’s last name 
  • Year/Date of publication

For Example:

Chocolate is a delicious food but it should be eaten in moderation (Smith 2021).

Different Cases of In-Text Citation in APSA Style

Here are different cases you can encounter when adding in-text citations in APSA Style:

Author Name Already Mentioned:

If the author’s name is mentioned in the text, you do not need to repeat it in the citation. 

For example:

According to Smith (2018), the political ramifications of the chocolate industry are enormous.

Two Authors: 

If the source has two authors, include both names in the citation, separated by “and”. 

For example:

Chocolate is a complex and diverse product that varies in quality and taste (Smith and Doe 2021)

Multiple Authors:

If the source has three or more authors, include only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” in the citation. 

For example:

Chocolate consumption has increased globally in the past decade, especially in emerging markets (James et al. 2021).

No Author:

If the source has no author, use the title or a shortened version of it in the citation, in quotation marks or italics, depending on the type of source. 

For example:

It is predicted that chocolate demand will outstrip supply by 2030, leading to higher prices and environmental challenges ( “The Future of Chocolate” 2023) 

No Date:

If the source has no date, use “n.d.” in the citation. 

For example:

Chocolate is one of the oldest and most popular foods in human history (Smith n.d.).

Multiple Sources:

If you are citing multiple sources in the same citation, separate them by semicolons and order them alphabetically by the first author’s last name.

For example:

Several studies have explored the social, economic, and political aspects of chocolate production and consumption (Doe 2019; Smith 2020; Zoe 2022).

Formatting Different Sources in APSA Reference List

The format of the in-text citation is the same for all types of sources, but the format of the reference page entry varies depending on the type of source. 

The reference page is a list of all the sources you cited in your paper, arranged alphabetically by the first author’s last name. 

Here are some formats and examples of how to format different sources in APSA style, with the corresponding in-text citations:

Book

Basic Format:

Author’s name. Year of publication. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher.

For Example:

Smith, John. 2018. The Science of Chocolate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Book (Two Authors):

Author and Author. Year of Publication. Title of the book. Place of Publication: Publisher.

For Example:

Smith, John and Jane Doe. 2019. The History and Culture of Chocolate. New York: Oxford University Press.

Book Chapter:

Author. Year of Publication. "Chapter Title." In Book Title, edited by Editor, Page Numbers. Place of Publication: Publisher.

For Example:

James, Jessie. 2020. “Chocolate and Politics: A Sweet Affair.” In The Politics of Food, edited by Alice Lee and Bob Brown, 123-145. New York: Routledge.

Journal Article

Basic Format: 

Author’s name. Year of publication. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal Volume number (Issue number): Page range.

For Example:

Smith, John. 2020. “Chocolate and Health: A Review of the Evidence.” The Lancet 395 (10231): 160-198.

Journal Article (Two Authors):

Author and Author. Year of publication. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal Volume number (Issue number): Page range.

For Example:

Doe, Jane and John Smith. 2021. “Chocolate Consumption and Happiness: A Cross-Cultural Study.” Journal of Happiness Studies 22 (2): 567-589.

Journal Article (Online):

Author. Year of publication. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal Volume number (Issue number): Page range. DOI/URL. Accessed Date.

For Example:

John Smith. 2021. “Chocolate Consumption and Happiness: A Cross-Cultural Study.” Journal of Happiness Studies 22 (2): 567-589. https://doi. org.worldcocoafoundation.org/about-cocoa/chocolate-industry/. Accessed February 13, 2021.

Website

Basic Format:

Author’s name or Organization name. Year of publication or last update (if available). “Title of the web page.” Title of the website. Date of access. URL.

For Example:

Smith, John. 2023. “How to Make Your Own Chocolate.” John’s Chocolate Blog. Accessed February 13, 2021. https://johnschocolateblog.com/how-to-make-your-own-chocolate/.

Website (No Author)

 “Title of the web page.” Title of the website. Date of access. URL.

For Example:

“Chocolate Industry Statistics and Facts.” World Cocoa Foundation. Accessed February 13, 2021. https://worldcocoafoundation.org/about-cocoa/chocolate-industry/.

Take a look at this example to have a better understanding of a reference list in APSA Style:

APSA Citation

So there you have it!

We hope this blog post has helped you understand how to cite in APSA citation style, with examples and tips for different types of sources. 

Remember to follow the general formatting rules for your paper, use parenthetical citations or author-date citations for in-text citations, and include all the necessary information for reference page entries. 

Try Our New and Improved Citation Machine

If you want to save time and avoid errors when citing sources in APSA style, you can use our new and improved citation machine. 

Our APSA citation machine is a free online tool that can help you generate accurate and consistent citations and references in APSA style. 

All you need to do is select the type of source you want to cite and enter the relevant information. 

Our citation machine is versatile and can also help you cite various other sources, such as APA, MLA, Harvard, etc.


Note: All information given in this article about the APSA Style Referencing has been obtained from the official manual, that can be accessed at: https://connect.apsanet.org/stylemanual/

Cathy Aranda

WRITTEN BY

Cathy Aranda (Mass communication)

Cathy is a highly dedicated author who has been writing for the platform for over five years. With a Master's degree in Mass Communication, she is well-versed in various forms of writing such as articles, press releases, blog posts, and whitepapers. As an essay writing guide author at PerfectEssayWriter.ai, she has been helping students and professionals improve their writing skills by offering practical tips on research, citation, sentence structure, and style.

Cathy is a highly dedicated author who has been writing for the platform for over five years. With a Master's degree in Mass Communication, she is well-versed in various forms of writing such as articles, press releases, blog posts, and whitepapers. As an essay writing guide author at PerfectEssayWriter.ai, she has been helping students and professionals improve their writing skills by offering practical tips on research, citation, sentence structure, and style.

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