Cathy Aranda
Cathy Aranda

How to Cite an Interview - Examples & Tips

6 min read

Published on: Jun 19, 2024

Last updated on: Jul 18, 2024

how to cite an interview

An interview citation is a reference to a conversation or exchange of information between an interviewer and an interviewee.

Its purpose is to acknowledge the source of information obtained from the interview and to provide readers with the means to locate and verify the original source.

In this concise guide, we'll walk you through the essential steps for properly citing interviews in your academic and professional work. We'll provide clear instructions and examples for citing interviews in different citation styles, such as MLA, APA, and Chicago.

How to Cite an Interview: MLA

The Modern Language Association (MLA) citation style provides guidelines for citing various sources, including interviews, in academic and scholarly writing. 

Citing Personal Interviews and Conversations 

To cite an interview in MLA, in-text citations follow this format: (Interviewee's Last Name).

  • Example: (Smith).

MLA works cited entry format: Last name of interviewee, First name. Interview. Conducted by interviewer's first name Last name, publication date.

Example: Smith, Jackson, Conducted by Glenn Phillips, 26 Feb, 2020.

Citing Published Interviews

In-text citation format: (Interviewee's Last Name).

  • Example: (Johnson).

For interviews retrieved from a specific source or platform, include the publication details in the Works Cited entry.

Works cited entry format: Interviewee last name, First name. “Interview Title.” Interview by Interviewer first name Last name. Newspaper Title, Publication Year, URL. or p. Page number(s).

  • Example: Johnson, Sarah. "Exploring the Future of Space Exploration." Interview by Maddison Pierce. Space Magazine, vol. 3, no. 2, 2023, p. 45-48.

How to Cite an Interview: APA 7th Ed. 

Citing interviews in APA 7th Edition involves specific guidelines to ensure accurate and consistent documentation. Whether you're referencing personal communications or published interviews, here's a breakdown to help you understand the citation process:

Citing Personal Interviews and Email Communications 

To cite an interview you conducted in APA style such as personal interviews or email communications, include the interviewee's last name, communication type, and date within the text. 

Example: 

  • (Doe, personal communication, January 15, 2023)
  • (Smith, personal communication, March 5, 2023)

These types of interviews are not cited on the APA reference page because they are not recoverable by readers. They provide personal insights or information that cannot be accessed by others.

Citing Published Interviews in APA Style 

When citing published interviews, you have to include both APA in-text citations and APA reference entries:

In-text citation format: (Interviewee's Last Name, Year)

  • Example: (Smith, 2023)

Reference entry format: Interviewee's Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of interview. Title of Source, Volume(Issue), Page range or URL.

  • Example: Johnson, K. L. (2023, May 15). Exploring the mysteries of deep-sea ecosystems: An interview with Dr. Samantha Green. Oceanic Discoveries. https://www.oceanicdiscoveries.com/interviews/exploring-mysteries-deep-sea-ecosystems

When citing interviews that are published in various source types, such as books, podcasts, journal articles, or videos, you need to follow the standard format. The only change is that the interviewer will be listed as the author in every reference.  

How to Cite an Interview: Chicago Citation Style 

Citing interviews in Chicago style has its own rules. Whether you're talking about conversations you had or interviews you read, here's how to cite them correctly:

Citing Personal Interviews and Email Communications 

In Chicago style, personal interviews and email communications are generally cited in footnotes or endnotes rather than in the bibliography. You only have to mention the interview in a Chicago style footnote after quoting or paraphrasing it in the text. You may refer to yourself as the “author” in this scenario. 

Footnote examples:

  • 1. Sarah Brown, interview by author, February 20, 2023.
  • 2. Email from David Johnson to author, April 5, 2023.

These types of interviews provide personal insights or information that may not be retrievable by others.

Citing Published Interviews

When citing published interviews, include both footnotes or endnotes and bibliography entries:

Footnote or Endnote Format:

  • 1. Interviewee First Name Last Name, "Title of Interview," Interview by Interviewer's First Name Last Name, Publication Title, Publication Date, URL or Page Number if applicable.

Example:

  • 1 Emily Jones, "Art and Inspiration," Interview by Samantha White, Art Journal, March 15, 2023, https://www.artjournal.com/art-and-inspiration.

Bibliography Format:

  • Interviewee Last Name, First Name. "Title of Interview." Interview by Interviewer's First Name Last Name. Publication Title, Publication Date. URL or Page Range if applicable.

Example:

  • Jones, Emily. "Art and Inspiration." Interview by Samantha White. Art Journal, March 15, 2023, https://www.artjournal.com/art-and-inspiration

How to Cite Interviews You Conducted Yourself?

When citing interviews you conducted yourself in Chicago style, you use footnotes or endnotes to provide the necessary information. Include the interviewee's name, the date of the interview, and any relevant details. 

Here's how you can structure your footnote citation:

  • Format: Interviewee's First Name, Last Name, interview by Your Name, Date of Interview.
  • Example: Sarah Brown, interview by John Smith, February 20, 2023.

How to Cite an Interview: Harvard Style 

In Harvard style, citing interviews involves specific formatting to ensure accuracy and consistency. Whether you're referencing personal conversations or published interviews, here's a guide to help you navigate the citation process in Harvard style:

Personal Interviews and Conversations 

In-text citation format: (Interviewee's Last Name, Year).

  • Example: (Smith, 2023).

Personal interviews are generally cited in the text and not in the reference list. 

Published Interviews 

In-text citation format: (Interviewee's Last Name, Year).

  • Example: (Johnson, 2023).

For interviews retrieved from a specific source or platform, include the publication details in the reference list entry.

  • Example:

Johnson, S. (2023). Exploring the Future of Space Exploration. Space Magazine, 3(2), 45-48.

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Frequently Asked Questions

How to cite an interview in an essay?

To cite an interview in an essay, you typically include the interviewee's name and the date of the interview within the text of your essay. This information helps readers identify the source of the information you're presenting. Additionally, if you're using direct quotes or specific information from the interview, it's important to provide context within your essay to indicate where the information originated.

Cathy Aranda

WRITTEN BY

Cathy Aranda (Mass communication)

Cathy is a highly dedicated author who has been writing for the platform for over five years. With a Master's degree in Mass Communication, she is well-versed in various forms of writing such as articles, press releases, blog posts, and whitepapers. As an essay writing guide author at PerfectEssayWriter.ai, she has been helping students and professionals improve their writing skills by offering practical tips on research, citation, sentence structure, and style.

Cathy is a highly dedicated author who has been writing for the platform for over five years. With a Master's degree in Mass Communication, she is well-versed in various forms of writing such as articles, press releases, blog posts, and whitepapers. As an essay writing guide author at PerfectEssayWriter.ai, she has been helping students and professionals improve their writing skills by offering practical tips on research, citation, sentence structure, and style.

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